Historical monuments may be damaged by factors among which four main ones are briefly described underneath:
Factor One: Moisture
One of the main damaging factors of the historical monuments and ancient ruins is moisture as a result of snowfall and rainfall. Most buildings are vulnerable and very sensitive to moisture. Moisture can penetrate into the building’s tissues in the form of sublimation, permeation, and sweating. All these forms are seen in the ancient monuments. This damage mostly occurs when the moisture separates adobe layers from the wall structure. This is caused by the movement of water and the reduction of the adobes’ tensile strength by absorbing moisture, transferring soluble salts as well as creating salt dissolution and crystallization cycles.
Factor Two: Cracking
As another damaging factor of the historical monuments, cracks are created by various elements such as surface and periodic contractions as a result of severe day and night temperature differences. When the sun hits the adobe wall, it raises the surface temperature, resulting in a temperature difference between the surface and the depth.