Nanotechnology in Construction Industry
The increased amount of construction and the limitation of the resources and consumable materials are the elements that have caused a remarkable increase in the demand for new materials in the construction industry.
One of the great new technologies in the current century is nanotechnology, which can be used to meet the needs of the construction industry.
The advantages of using this technology include increasing the quality of materials, saving energy consumption and consequently economic savings. Applications of nanotechnology in the construction industry are noteworthy, some of which are as follows:
- It improves the cement and concrete properties
- It prevents the external destructive agents to infiltrate into the concrete. It, therefore, causes longevity and stability of concrete and decreases the rate of destruction.
- It increases self-cleaning property in addition to the resistance to corrosion, abrasion, and decay.
- It increases the heat transfer resistance.
- It prevents efflorescence and blistering of the wall as well as exfoliation of the paints and scaling, and contamination absorption.
- It prevents the mildews and fungi to appear on the surface.
- It protects the surface from cracking and premature wear.
- It increases the concrete strength and prevents hardware corrosion.
In general, reducing the size of particles to nanometers causes changes in their physical and chemical properties among which the most important change is “increase in the surface-to-volume ratio”.
Nanotechnology applications in the construction and concrete industries date back to the last few years. Since about 80 years ago, micron-sized silica has been widely used in cement-based concrete. It has been proven that the use of particles smaller than microsilica increases the compressive strength of the concrete. Recent research in the field of nanotechnology in concrete has included the study of hydration particles in cement; the impacts of adding nano-silica to concrete; the impacts of adding nanoparticles to concrete, cement, and cement coatings; and observing their impacts on the property behavior.
The waterproofer of the buildings and the concrete is a material with very small-size particles (4 nm to 6 nm) and resistibility against heat properties, ultraviolet radiation, and erosion. This material is a water-based eco-friendly, and non-toxic liquid contrary to other similar materials that are alcohol-base and toxic.
It reacts with the silica of the materials and infiltrates more than 5 mm into the surface without creating a separate layer or changing the color, and makes the surface waterproof.
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